Among the difficulties that the school is experiencing, a special place is occupied by the problems caused by the increase in the number of schoolchildren with minor deviations in psychophysical development. This question is very relevant not only for young teachers, but even for experienced teachers.
Psychological and pedagogical support of a child with minor developmental disabilities is a relatively new phenomenon for the mass school.
Starting school, entering school life, a new social situation is a difficult task for all categories of children. At the same time, the teacher should be prepared for the fact that there may be children in the classroom whose learning difficulties are persistent, as a rule, accompanied by behavioral disorders. These are schoolchildren with impaired speech, hearing, vision, asthenic conditions, mental retardation, mental experiences, psychopathological forms of behavior.
"A child whose development is complicated by a defect is not less developed than his normal peers, a child, but otherwise developed" - wrote LM Vygotkiy. The task of the school and society is to create conditions for compensating for developmental disorders.
The main method of studying the adaptation of first-graders in school is directed observation. Based on the observation of behavior and learning activities, as well as the results of the analysis of data on the state of health and physical development, it is necessary to identify students who are experiencing certain difficulties. All cases that distinguish the child from the general mass should be recorded, namely, the dominant emotional state in the lesson, at recess, the assimilation and adherence to school norms and rules of behavior, the peculiarities of attention (switching, stability, volume, distraction, etc.), mental working capacity, pace of learning activity, etc.
In the first days of schooling, it is important to identify students with hearing impairments, since the presence of preserved physical hearing is a necessary prerequisite for the successful mastery of reading and writing. To pronounce sounds and words clearly and correctly, the child must hear them. With a slight hearing loss, he is deprived of the possibility of normal speech perception. As a rule, these children have a limited vocabulary, specific defects in pronunciation. When reading and writing, specific errors are characteristic: mixing voiced and voiceless consonants, hissing and sibilant, loss of unstressed endings, omission of the beginning of a word, distortion of the combination of consonants, violation of the grammatical structure of speech and the like.
At the same time, mildly hearing impaired children can be successful learners if given the right environment.
The teacher should be encouraged to place the hearing impaired student on the first desk. When explaining the material, the teacher should speak loudly. Pronounce words clearly so that the child can see the teacher's face. If necessary, you should repeat the material, conduct a qualitative analysis of errors and, if there are errors in the work of the first grader, associated with hearing impairment, do not lower the marks.
It is necessary in the presence of other students to emphasize the positive qualities and successes achieved by the child. In the first days at school, it is advisable to conduct several additional classes, in which more attention should be paid to distinguishing by ear of voiceless and voiced consonants, unstressed parts of the word, and enrichment of vocabulary. It is important to draw the attention of parents to the need to develop requirements for the speech of adults in the family.
Often among first-graders there are schoolchildren with speech disorders.
Stuttering also leads to secondary problems: indecision, timidity, irritability, tearfulness, etc.