Adaptation a child is a long process. The child’s body must adapt to the new conditions of school life, and the teaching staff is obliged to help him in this.
future first graders
- Support your child in his aspirations to become a school student.
- Discuss with your child about rules and norms that he will meet at school
- Every child come to school to study. When a person learns, something may not work out right away. The child has the right to make mistakes.
- Make a daily routine with your child, make sure it is followed. Don’t overlook the difficulties your child may have in the early stages of learning. If, for example, your child has stuttering problem, try to cope with it before going to school.
- The school should be close to home.
- When choosing a school for a hyperactive or sluggish child, you must first of all choose a teacher. He should be calm and level-headed.
- Encourage your child to succeed. Remember that praise (“Well done!”, “You did well!”) is emotional support!
Students with mild disabilities
Among the difficulties that the school is experiencing, a special place is occupied by the problems caused by the increase in the number of schoolchildren with minor deviations in psychophysical development. This question is very relevant not only for young teachers, but even for experienced teachers.
Psychological and pedagogical support of a child with minor developmental disabilities is a relatively new phenomenon for the mass school.
Starting school, entering school life, a new social situation is a difficult task for all categories of children. At the same time, the teacher should be prepared for the fact that there may be children in the classroom whose learning difficulties are persistent, as a rule, accompanied by behavioral disorders. These are schoolchildren with impaired speech, hearing, vision, asthenic conditions, mental retardation, mental experiences, psychopathological forms of behavior.
“A child whose development is complicated by a defect is not less developed than his normal peers, a child, but otherwise developed” – wrote LM Vygotkiy. The task of the school and society is to create conditions for compensating for developmental disorders.
The main method of studying the adaptation of first-graders in school is directed observation. Based on the observation of behavior and learning activities, as well as the results of the analysis of data on the state of health and physical development, it is necessary to identify students who are experiencing certain difficulties. All cases that distinguish the child from the general mass should be recorded, namely, the dominant emotional state in the lesson, at recess, the assimilation and adherence to school norms and rules of behavior, the peculiarities of attention (switching, stability, volume, distraction, etc.), mental working capacity, pace of learning activity, etc.
In the first days of schooling, it is important to identify students with hearing impairments, since the presence of preserved physical hearing is a necessary prerequisite for the successful mastery of reading and writing. To pronounce sounds and words clearly and correctly, the child must hear them. With a slight hearing loss, he is deprived of the possibility of normal speech perception. As a rule, these children have a limited vocabulary, specific defects in pronunciation. When reading and writing, specific errors are characteristic: mixing voiced and voiceless consonants, hissing and sibilant, loss of unstressed endings, omission of the beginning of a word, distortion of the combination of consonants, violation of the grammatical structure of speech and the like.
At the same time, mildly hearing impaired children can be successful learners if given the right environment.
The teacher should be encouraged to place the hearing impaired student on the first desk. When explaining the material, the teacher should speak loudly. Pronounce words clearly so that the child can see the teacher’s face. If necessary, you should repeat the material, conduct a qualitative analysis of errors and, if there are errors in the work of the first grader, associated with hearing impairment, do not lower the marks.
It is necessary in the presence of other students to emphasize the positive qualities and successes achieved by the child. In the first days at school, it is advisable to conduct several additional classes, in which more attention should be paid to distinguishing by ear of voiceless and voiced consonants, unstressed parts of the word, and enrichment of vocabulary. It is important to draw the attention of parents to the need to develop requirements for the speech of adults in the family.
Often among first-graders there are schoolchildren with speech disorders.
Stuttering also leads to secondary problems: indecision, timidity, irritability, tearfulness, etc.
- build on the child’s strengths;
- Encourage and do not traumatise a child by lowering their grade for specific mistakes;
- provide help tactfully;
- not demand detailed oral answers in the presence of other students, it is better not loudly at the table or in writing;
- organize the child’s work with a speech therapist.
Learning difficulties are often associated with visual impairment (farsightedness, myopia, astigmatism. Children often do not see letters and numbers clearly, confuse them in outline, they get tired quickly, have low working capacity. All disorders are usually compensated for with glasses. The teacher must remember that these children are not they always see the board and map well. It is advisable to use different types of work, monitor the amount of visual load in the lesson. Both at school and at home you should observe sanitary and hygienic conditions: correct lighting, use stands, correct fit. Exercises to train the eye muscle are possible. Difficulties arise in children with mental retardation. They are characterized by infantilism, immaturity of the emotional and volitional sphere, lack of development of school interests, difficulties in concentrating on the lesson, increased fatigue, headaches, and childish spontaneity in behavior.
When working with such children, it is advisable:
- use game moments in the lesson;
- use colorful visuals;
- make classes varied and emotionally rich;
- create a positive attitude in the classroom, which increases efficiency;
- reduce the volume of homework at the initial stage and increase it gradually;
- apply in the TAC lesson.
Training children with asthenic conditions
When teaching children with asthenic conditions, which are characterized by distraction, excitability, anxiety, sometimes lethargy, nervousness, tearfulness, lethargy, it is necessary to recommend:
a gradual increase in the volume of homework;
the gradual complication of homework;
at the first sign of fatigue, switch their attention to other activities.
An effective technique for this category of children is a periodic change of posture, the transition from a sitting posture to a standing posture at least three times per lesson.
Children with psychopathic reactions are rarely found among schoolchildren in mass schools. The occurrence of such reactions can be due to birth trauma, brain infections, chronic diseases of the mother and other reasons.
The severity of psychopathic reactions depends on the conditions in which the child lives and develops. Often, along with preserved intelligence, there is an underdevelopment of the emotional-volitional sphere (children are vulnerable, touchy, emotionally cold, withdrawn, prone to affective outbursts, often have an unstable mood background). Low efficiency does not allow to overcome learning difficulties. The shortcomings of their behavior are visible from the first days: they do not know how to obey educational requirements, do not complete educational tasks, violate discipline, are conflicted, etc.
When teaching children with psychopathic disorders, it is necessary to persistently teach them to do their homework carefully, to complicate tasks gradually, to avoid gaps in knowledge, and to teach students to analyze their actions.
The educator should keep them in sight at all times and have a calm, even tone.
(from raising the tone, screaming, these children easily fall into passion). When affected, their attention should be switched to other activities.
Labor is of great importance when working with this category of children, as it relieves general excitability. Particular attention should be paid to contact with parents, and a unified approach to parenting should be pursued at home and at school. The teacher needs to remember that psychopathic qualities, with the right approach, can be smoothed out by the age of 10.
Thus, the success of adaptation of first-graders with minor deviations in psychophysical development depends on the correspondence of the organization of the educational process to the peculiarities of the development of this category of schoolchildren.
Handbooks to parents
Doctors believe that at the age of 6-7 years it is very difficult for a child to be with himself. And a thousand times they are right, our grandmothers, who sent their offspring at the age of 9, when the nervous system had already formed. However, serious breakdowns and illnesses can be avoided even today if you follow the simplest rules.
Rule # 1
Never send a child to first grade and to a section or circle at the same time. If the baby is not able to take a walk, he may have health problems, and neurosis may begin. Therefore, if playing sports and music seems to be a necessary part of raising your child, start taking him there a year before starting school or from second grade.
Remember that a child can concentrate for no more than 10-15 minutes. Therefore, when you do lessons with them, take a break every 10-15 minutes and be sure to give your baby physical exercises. You can just ask him to jump in place 10 times, run or dance to the music for a few minutes. It is better to start homework with a letter. You can alternate written assignments with oral ones. The total duration of classes should not exceed one hour.
A computer, TV and any other activities that require a lot of visual stress should last no more than an hour a day – this is the opinion of ophthalmologists and neuropathologists in all countries of the world.
During the first year of school, your little one needs support the most. He not only forms his relationships with classmates and teachers, but also at first realizes that someone wants to make friends with him, and someone does not. It is at this time that the child develops his own view of himself. And if you want a calm and confident person to grow out of him, be sure to praise him. Support, do not scold for deuces and dirt in the notebook. All these are trifles compared to the fact that your child will lose faith in himself from endless reproaches and punishments.
Tips for training lessons
- The key point in the lesson is to create a “situation of success”. Whether a first grader wrote a beautiful letter or finally learned to distinguish a checkered notebook from a ruled notebook, he needs to be praised, it must be noted that he succeeded. You cannot compare children with each other, only with himself!
- All the guys want to answer, they will excel, but you have to ask the board at will!
- It’s very scary to go to the blackboard for the first time, and answer more calmly from your usual workplace.
- What do you think worries a first grader the most when he walks into school? Will he find his way to his class and is he late? To avoid unnecessary anxieties, it is necessary to organize a meeting with students on the ground floor and make a joint journey to a magical room full of new discoveries and joy. On school uniforms, each student may have a badge, which indicates his name and class. And even if the first grader still does not know how to read, there are quite a few “clues” that will help kids find their way if they get lost.
- It is necessary to work closely with parents. Open lessons provide a lot of information and make life much easier for parents. Often dads and moms have no idea how to complete this or that task with the children on their own.
- Of course, many delicate issues that arise during the educational process cannot be avoided. Excitement, emotions, physiology makes children often run to the toilet in class! There are cases when children are forced to endure until the change and the result is sad!
- And of course, it is necessary to take into account the individual characteristics of the child, friendly communication in the lesson, a constant change of activity, the organization of recreation is not a change. All this will definitely give its positive results.
- Only by fruitfully cooperating with each other, only by combining their professionalism, rich practical experience, kindness and attention, wisdom and justice, the participants in the educational process will turn into musicians, and the great music of the great orchestra will sound for the only listener – a small person who is ready to become big.